If you’ve heard us on the air during the last 30+ years, you know our motto:
You provide the content, and we provide all technical means to bring your own content and your own program to your audience worldwide.
So it’s your content, and it’s your audience (not ours), and we proudly take care of everything to make your mission and broadcast a success. Indeed we also carry all programs unabridged, without modification, as-is. This is why we are a different radio or TV station: in fact, our original name was Italian Radio Relay Service (now also known asIrish Radio Relay Service), and since 1979 we are the first ever organization providing a service of this kind. We are, in fact, a relay station!
We provide you with free counselling to help you get on the air now and fast, and fully manage our technical infrastructure, so you do not have to be proficient in broadcast licencing, transmitter operation, maintenance, time, frequency and antenna selection, frequency management, etc.
Over so many years we helped many small and large organizations come on the air starting with very simple equipment, i.e. a home tape recorder or a home computer with a microphone, knowing that we do the rest to bring your program to your audience anywhere in the world.
We’ll gladly help your mission, your organization or yourself alone to be on the air quickly and to your desired target. Email, call or get in touch, and we’ll be glad to help.
NEXUS-IBA awarded large contract under the European Union's 5th Framework Program (DEMOS)
NEXUS-IBA awarded large contract under the European Union’s 5th Framework Program (Information Society Technologies, Key Action I.4.2, ‚On-line Support to Democratic Processes‘).
Milano, Italy, Sept. 1, 2000 —: NEXUS-IBA has been awarded a large contract for the development of DEMOS (Delphi Mediation Online System), a web-based platform whose primary objective is to enable fruitful and constructive debate between citizens and politicians with the intention of facilitating and encouraging “online-democracy”. DEMOS is an international Research & Development project funded by the European Commission (IST-1999-20530). Partners in the DEMOS project come from a broad range of institutions and companies, all sharing a mutual interest in counteracting against the apparent disenchantment with politics, which has become a challenge for democracy.
NEXUS-IBA’s interest in DEMOS is also related to its use in large opinion polls and qualitative analysis in general, and we will be testing other possible uses in the following areas: consumer surveys, focus groups, media analysis, consulting, advertising research, market research for products and brands, customer satisfaction research, media research, and public opinion including political and corporate image surveys.
DEMOS may in several cases reduce significantly the cost of running any medium-large scale survey on a rather large group of population. The DEMOS software and methodology itself, in fact, will be able to reach very high-quality results due to the continuous refinement of results.
With its seat in Milano, Italy, NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association is a non-profit association founded in 1988. Our aims are to provide all necessary means at our disposal for the dissemination of content on radio and the Internet.
Today the association is re-focusing as a technology mediator or facilitator, to enable end-users to make full use of the recent developments of technology, media and the Internet. To fulfill its aims NEXUS-IBA also offers several services as an International Internet Service Provider, and is involved in training programs aimed to teachers and parents on the role of emerging technologies. People working for NEXUS-IBA are professionals, teachers, professors, journalists, students and engineers devoting their spare time and resources as a public service to the global community.
On June 15, 1995, NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association was officially approved for association with the Department of Public Information of the United Nations.
NEXUS-IBA created and maintains a Content Delivery Network (CDN) in Europe and the USA created with an internally developed technology called “WorldDirector”, where several Internet related services and applications are delivered to end users, including streaming audio and video.
In 2001 NEXUS-IBA created a commercial spin-off (WORNEX International S.r.l., http://www.wornex.com) that is currently marketing the WorldDirector technology and services worldwide.
About interference to IRRS-Shortwave from Merlin Communication International Ltd
About interference to IRRS-Shortwave from Merlin Communication International Ltd (UK) relaying Radio Korea International (KBS) on 3,980 kHz between 2030-2230 UTC Radio Korea International (KBS) on 3,980 kHz between 2030-2230 UTC
March 26, 2000 update: Merlin/Radio Korea left 3,980 kHz with the beginning of the Summer 2000 season (A00). We are again heard loud and clear all over Europe and the Northern Mediterranean. Check our frequency and program schedules for details.
Information updated on Dec. 1, 1999: Merlin and R. Korea just resumed their harmful interference on 3,980 kHz (DSB) from 2000-2330 CET (1900-2230 UTC), with a power of 250 kW from the UK . Again, this is showing no respect on both Merlin and R. Korea on the fact that we have established regular operations on 3,985 kHz for the last five years. Merlin Communication is operating both on 3,985 and 3,955 kHz at the same time on the 75 m.b. The result is again extremely heavy interference on our broadcasts on 3985 kHz.
Milan, 31 January, 1999 — STOP PRESS: For immediate release.
NEXUS-IBA versus Merlin Communication International Ltd: Modern-day David and Goliath : Interference to IRRS-Shortwave operations from R. Korea/Merlin Communications Int’l Ltd on 3,980 kHz.
For more than six years NEXUS International Broadcasting Association has occupied the 75 m.b. frequency of 3,985 kHz through its shortwave operation IRRS-Shortwave, long before most major broadcasters realized the importance of this band in serving Europe.
Suddenly and without prior warning, Merlin Communication International Ltd (UK) has begun relays of Radio Korea on the adjacent frequency of 3,980 kHz between 2030-2230 UTC. This is in clear violation of recommendations established by the High Frequency Co-ordination Committee (HFCC), of which both NEXUS-IBA and Merlin are members, as well as standard engineering practice prohibiting five kHz channel spacing for broadcasts to the same target zone. Due to the special AM-like characteristics of the 75 m.b. standard engineering practice suggest at least a 10 kHz channel spacing for transmissions regardless of the operating power of each transmitter. In addition Merlin has not duly registered either with the HFCC, nor with International Telecommunication Union the use of 3,980 kHz for the above times.
The result of this has been heavy interference to IRRS-Shortwave during the Merlin/Radio Korea transmission period between 2000 and 2230 UTC.
NEXUS-IBA has complained strongly to Merlin and Radio Korea, but to date we have received only a fax dated Jan. 25, 1999, in which Merlin’s Frequency Manager, Gary Stanley, writes “ … The replacement frequency I chose is not ideal but the situation is difficult because of the cluttered nature of the band at this time. 3980kHz seemed to be the best choice as it caused the least interference to other users in the band. I realize this does not help you in any way but I hope you can see I had no other choice.
Merlin’s behavior demonstrates its utter disregard for the rights of smaller broadcasters like NEXUS-IBA/IRRS, and a cynical adherence to the philosophy that kilowatts and revenue are more important than honoring the basic code of shortwave engineering conduct and International protocol.
The fact of the matter is that Merlin had no reserved resources in the 75 meter band, and therefore no legitimate right to offer Radio Korea a relay facility in that band. From experience, we also know that Merlin does not take NEXUS-IBA seriously because of its relatively low power, and has repeatedly refused to negotiate seriously with us at previous HFCC conferences, thus causing similar problems in the past.
This is a matter of survival for NEXUS-IBA/IRRS and the alternative shortwave programming it offers. We therefore appeal to the shortwave/SWL community to assist us by registering a protest with Merlin Communication International, and demanding that it cease its adjacent channel interference to us immediately.
Messages of complaint and protest should be addressed to:
Merlin Communications International Limited
20 Lincoln’s Inn Fields
London WC2A 3ES
Fax: +44 171 396 6221
Korean Broadcasting System,
Technical Management Div., 18
Yoidudong, Young Dungpo-Gu,
Fax: +822 7815199.
Please copy us at NEXUS-IBA,
fax: +39-02-706 38151,
This is not the first attack against NEXUS-IBA/IRRS-Shortwave in its more than eleven years of operation on shortwave. So far we have survived against all odds, but now we are faced with yet another “David and Goliath” challenge to our existence, and we appeal to you for help.
Please help us survive. Thank you.
With its seat in Milano, Italy, NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association is a strictly non-profit Association founded under Italian Law that operates IRRS-Shortwave to Europe. NEXUS-IBA, which is designated as an independent “Community Broadcaster”, according to the Italian Broadcasting Law of 1990, makes available broadcast time at cost to members of the Association, with no commercial advertising on the air and, currently, with no corporate underwriting. For a direct impression of the NEXUS-IBA / IRRS-Shortwave operation, you may tune in Europe to the Shortwave frequencies 7,120, and 3,985 (41 and 75 meter bands) daily with programming in various languages.
For more information please contact:
NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association
About interference to IRRS-Shortwave from Deutsche Telekom, Julich, Germany
About interference to IRRS-Shortwave from Deutsche Telekom, Julich, Germany carrying Brother Stair on 3,960 kHz between 2000-2200 UTC
(conflict solved on June 29, 1998, the following are excerpts from the original press releases describing the conflict)
Milan, Italy, June 27, 1998: Brother Stair’s (also known as the “Prophet” or the “Overcomer”) is now broadcasting via Deutsche Telekom’s transmitters in Julich, Germany, on 3,960 kHz and is causing strong interference to IRRS-Shortwave transmissions on 3,955 kHz to Europe between 2000-2200 UTC (Fri, Sat & Sun) since June 26, 1998.
We have reached Brother Ralph Stairs by e-mail, and promptly informed him about the conflict, asking him to find a better frequency which does not interfere with other stations. Brother Stairs assured us on July 27, 1998, that he will talk to Deutsche Telekom on Monday morning, June 29, 1998 and [the problem] “will be resolved”. IRRS-Shortwave’s listeners will continue to experience strong interference on all IRRS-Shortwave’s broadcasts on 3,955 kHz until Deutsche Telekom agrees to move from 3,960 kHz during the times of the conflict. It is standard practice in international broadcasting that two station should not use frequencies +/- 5 kHz from each other, if both stations broadcast to the same target area.
We apologize with our listeners, for the inconvenience, and we assure you that we are taking all possible steps to solve this problem as soon as possible.
Deutsche Telecom recently started airing Brother Stair’s live transmissions via satellite from the USA initially using 3,945 kHz, which conflicted with legitimate users of that portion of the frequency spectrum both in Region 1 and Region 2. A week ago, after transmissions on 3,945 kHz were discontinued, it has been noted on several frequencies in the already crowded 75 m.b. (3,950-4,000 kHz in Europe) from Julich, Germany, on 3,955, 3,960 and 3,985 kHz. Deutsche Telekom also operates Deutsche Welle transmitters on 3,995 kHz.
IRRS-Shortwave coordinated the use of 3,985 and 3,955 kHz with the HFCC and registered the use of its current frequencies with the Italian authorities for the current season. IRRS-Shortwave has been a long time user of 3,955 kHz during the summer period, as well as a regular user of 3,985 kHz which is also coordinated between SwissCom and NEXUS-IBA. Deutsche Telekom had no previous usage of either 3,955 nor 3,960 in previous seasons, nor did they register the use of such frequencies either at the IFRB/ITU, or at the HFCC.
IRRS-Shortwave broadcasts daily programs originating from members of NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association, including United Nations Radio, UNESCO, and a variety of other cultural and religious programs. See our schedule at https://www.nexus.org/NEXUS-IBA for more information.
Milan, Italy, June 29, 1998: We receved a fax from Deutsche Telekom in Julich with apologies for the interference caused to IRRS-Shortwave last Fri, Sat and Sun, with the explanation that there has been a programming error at Julich, as their transmitter on 3,960 kHz was not shut down during our scheduled broadcast on 3,955 kHz. We thank Mr Stairs who helped solving the problem with DT, and Deutsche Telekom / Julich for their prompt reaction. We monitored Brother Stair’s broadcasts which are continuing on 3,960 kHz from Juelich, but this should only be a Mon-Thu transmission, that should not interfere again with our Fri-Sat & Sun operation on 3,955 kHz from 2200-2200 UTC.
With its seat in Milano, Italy, NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association is a strictly non-profit association founded under Italian Law that operates IRRS-Shortwave to Europe and IRRS-Globe Radio Milan on FM. NEXUS-IBA, which is designated as an independent “Community Broadcaster”, according to the Italian Broadcasting Law of 1990, makes available broadcast time at cost to members of the Association, with no commercial advertising on the air and, currently, with no corporate underwriting. For a direct impression of the NEXUS-IBA / IRRS-Shortwave operation, you may tune in Europe to the Shortwave frequencies 7,120, 3,985 and 3,955 kHz (41 and 75 meter bands) daily, and in Milano (Italy) on 88.85 MHz FM with programming in the English language.
For more information please contact:
NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association
Interference from Deutsche Telekom Julich was last modified: November 21st, 2017 by NEXUS-IBA Editor
The Schwarzenburg HF transmitting station (1938-1998)
1934: First steps: Studio Basel compiles weekly transmissions for Swiss abroad.
1935: First Shortwave outlets to North and South America via transmitters of the League of Nations, known as the “Voelkerbund”, operated by the Radio Suisse Co. in Prangins, near Geneva.
The curtain array at Schwarzenburg
1937: Weekly outlets in the three Swiss national languages, and features such as the “Week in Switzerland”, spoken correspondence, sports results etc. These transmissions took on so well that construction of an own transmitting centre was considered. The Swiss PTT was given then mandate to evaluate a suitable location. As a result, a wide plane near Schwarzenburg was chosen.
1938: The Swiss Parliament agreed to the project and shortly after, construction started.
Bob Zanotti (left) and Bob Thomann (right), last guests at Schwarzenburg on 28 March 1998
1939: Early spring, the station was completed, but on July 6, the station was destroyed by a big fire, allegedly due to a human shortcoming. Prangins took over helpfully the transmissions again, while reconstruction of the Schwarzenburg site began immediately and was even extended to contain additional transmitters for overseas radiotelephony, which became an important item, due to the aggravating political situation in Europe: WW-II was about to break out.
Early construction at Schwarzenburg in 1938
1939/1940: Just about three months after its outbreak the Schwarzenburg transmitting site was rebuilt and became operational with two 25 Kilowatt AM Hasler transmitters and a few rotating Rhombic Antennas. At the same time, Radiotelephone Terminal Equipment was installed in the Main Post Office in Bern, where the technical and switchboard operators were about to connect telephone customers over the SW transmitters to various destinations, such as New York and Lisbon.
Bob Zanotti with an earlier transmitter at the Schwarzenburg “museum”. The station and its close-doors museum was shut down on March 29, 1998.
Swiss borders becoming blocked by the Nazi occupation of Europe, the Swiss had to build up their overseas supply using their merchant fleet with the main unloading harbours in Lisbon and Genoa. To avoid being torpedoed by German submarines, the ships positions were broadcasted daily via Schwarzenburg and picked up also by the German Marine HQ, so the Germans knew exactly where the neutral Swiss ships were. The ships themselves were in wireless contact via special services operated by the Radio Suisse Co. in Duebendorf near Zurich.
Using Radio amateur equipment: The construction of new additional transmitters was rather slow, Kurt Wydler, one of the first technicians of the station, a radio amateur (HB9DS) has just finished his Amateur-transmitter, but with the outbreak of the War, all Radio amateur equipment was confiscated by the PTT. Wydler’s transmitter, however, was sent back to Schwarzenburg, where a final 500 Watt amplifier was built and added – and was put into continuous operation for broadcasting.
1941: A 2.5 kW Western-Electric SSB transmitter was installed, by the way, that was the first SSB equipment in Switzerland, and at the Radio terminal in Bern also WE-Terminals and a special 5-band Speech- privacy to scramble the telephone communications were put into service. This was the beginning of an SSB-link between Switzerland and the US. The transmitting site was in Lawrenceville and the receiving station at Whiteplains, NY.
1946: After the War, continental communication saw a tremendous boom, which called for additional Equipment. Ten standard, 4-kW transmitters were installed, plus a 40 kW final amplifier.
The 25 kW AM transmitters at Schwarzenburg
1952: In addition to the Rhombic antennas, a new curtain-antenna-array was built and fed with almost one kilometre long 300 Ohm parallel feeder lines.
1960: The huge rotatable Swedish Allgon log-periodic antenna was built, which could carry 250 kW. also new matching the 250 kW BBC and Marconi transmitters joined the Hasier Equipment and shortly after, quite some 30 kW Siemens- SSB-transmitters were added. These Siemens were exclusively for the Radiotelephony service.
The 2.5 kW SSB Western Electric transmitter
The Sixties also saw half a dozen new 40 kW rotating log-period antennas to provide the fast-evolving radiotelephone service which included some 30 circuits to stations all around the world, some of them using the new Lincompex technique which improved the speech quality a lot, and which also allowed direct dialling.
So the Schwarzenburg transmitter served several purposes: broadcasting, radiotelephony and in:
1971: still a new Service was introduced: BERNA-RADIO, to provide wireless communication with air crafts aloft. Starting out with our national Airline Swissair, soon after many national, European and international airlines joined this practical instrument, to keep in touch with their home bases for all kind of communication. It proved quite handy when an aircraft had troubles of any kind so that the flight engineer could get immediate assistance from the company trouble-shooter. For this service, two new, fast switching and remote controllable 10 kW Siemens transmitters were added (these transmitters were later acquired by NEXUS-IBA and used to start IRRS-Shortwave’s European service).
NEXUS-IBA’s TX #1, one of the twin Siemens transmitters later modified for A3A, reduced carrier USB, and in operation since 1987 from IRRS-Shortwave’s facility in Milano, Italy, serving Europe, N. Africa and the Middle East. These fully automatic, fast switching transmitters were used by Berna Radio’s aeronautical service at Schwarzenburg to connect Swissair’s aircrafts flying all over the world to their company headquarters in Switzerland. NEXUS-IBA acquired them when IRRS-Shortwave started its transmissions in October 1987.
It is sad news indeed to report that this aeronautical service of Berna-Radio will also come to an end sometime in 1998, as aircraft communication has been veered to satellites, which provide 24 hours access, whereas HF Communications – as we all know, are subject to propagation conditions and occasional freaks.
Paul Stettler at control board in Schwarzenburg
It is indeed with some sadness and nostalgia, that we have to accept the closure of the legendary Schwarzenburg transmitting station, but all those having taken part from the very beginning it up and kept it running for almost sixty years can certainly look back to a most interesting era with the sure feeling, having accomplished a most rewarding task, and a job was well done, that’s for sure!
But nothing lasts forever. So we do have to accept the new age in which Shortwave broadcasting will – still for many years – be very much in evidence, and so will Swiss Radio International! The 500 kW transmitting station near Sottens in the French part of Switzerland will continue operation. The Schwarzenburg frequencies will be aired from stations in Juelich, Germany, and relay-stations in Africa, South America and the Far East.
The European outlet of 6165 kHz still in Lenk, in the Bernese Oberland, will also come to an end sometime in 1988, and that frequency will also most likely continue to be heard from a Juelich transmitter – i.e. from one of the Deutsche Welle’s transmitting sites. SRI will most likely also be heard Internet in the future, and can be picked up from satellites as well as on many cable systems.
So much from the history of the Shortwave transmitting site in Schwarzenburg.
Compiled by Bob Thomann in March 1988, edited by NEXUS-IBA staff in memorial of the legendary Schwarzenburg HF station shut down on March 29, 1998. Excerpts from Bob Thomann and Bob Zanotti (the Two Bobs) may be heard as part of the history and archives of the “Hello There” program. More pictures on the Schwarzenburg HF station may be found here.
The Schwarzenburg HF transmitting station (1938-1998) was last modified: December 6th, 2017 by NEXUS-IBA Editor
NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association and WRMI (Radio Miami International) to offer free airtime during December 1996
Miami, Florida and Milano, Italy – 10 October, 1996 : Shortwave stations WRMI in Miami, Florida and IRRS in Milan, Italy will be offering free airtime during the month of December, 1996 to producers of cultural and educational radio programming.The two stations launched an initiative called “International Public Access Radio” (IPAR) in May of this year, offering airtime at a rate of US$1.00 per minute to cultural and educational programs in an effort to give these types of organizations more access to the international airwaves.
During December, 1996, IRRS-Shortwave and WRMI will be offering airtime to new IPAR clients completely free of charge. Those programmers who wish to continue after the free trial period will be able to do so at the special IPAR rate of US$1.00 per minute on each station.
“Governments and large religious organizations have long had access to high-powered international shortwave stations to spread their messages around the world,” said WRMI General Manager Jeff White in announcing the December promotion. “What we want to do — since we are both privately-owned stations — is give that same access to smaller, independent groups and organizations which may not have big budgets, but they may still have an important message they want to tell the world.”
WRMI (Radio Miami International) transmits to the Americas on 9,955 kHz, and IRRS-Shortwave broadcasts to Europe and North Africa on three different frequencies in the 41 and 75 meter bands shortwave, depending on the time of day.
Persons or organizations who would like to take advantage of the International Public Access Radio free airtime offer during the month of December 1996 on either or both stations may contact them via E-mail at : IPAR@nexus.org or as follows:
In Europe :
NEXUS-Int’l Broadcasting Association,
Telephone : +39-02-266-6971
E-mail : email@example.com
NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association and WRMI (Radio Miami International) signed today an agreement to provide small cultural radio program producers access to radio audiences in the Americas, Europe and North Africa, and encourage listener-supported international radio
Milano, Italy – 26 April, 1996 : Representatives of Radio Miami International and NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association met in Milano, Italy, today to sign an agreement that will favour “international public access radio” on Shortwave.
The two organizations agreed to join forces to create a system of “international public access radio” whereby small producers of cultural radio programs can have the same access to international airwaves that large governments, political and religious organizations already have. Presently, most international Shortwave radio stations are owned by governments and large religious organizations who generally do not support the concept of private or individual radio broadcasting, and do not allow such organizations to purchase airtime on their facilities.
In the United States, the concept of “public access” broadcasting has existed for quite some time. Small independent program producers may broadcast their material on different stations at little or no cost, but this has generally been limited to local cable television stations. However, the concept has never been taken to the level of a national or international radio station, and nothing on this scale has ever existed in Europe.
Representatives of the two organizations stated that this new concept should be attractive to clubs, cultural associations, free radio producers and even individuals in many countries who have a message for the world. For the first time, these types of small program producers will have access to the same wide-reaching media used by the most influential governmental and religious broadcasters around the world.
Shortwave radio has been used for six decades by mostly governments to broadcast political messages. Despite the advent of satellites, cable and Internet, Shortwave radio continues to maintain a large and faithful audience around the world as new, compact, sophisticated receivers have come onto the marketplace at prices everyone can afford. For just the cost of a small portable receiver, listeners can get first-hand information on world events, lifestyles in different countries, as well as music and entertainment from almost anyplace on earth. And unlike some of the newer technologies, there are no subscription fees, encoded programs and bulky equipment to deal with.
NEXUS-IBA is a non profit organization which operates IRRS-Shortwave, a radio station in Milan, Italy, covering all of Europe, the Mediterranean and North Africa on Shortwave. Radio Miami International operates station WRMI in Miami, Florida, which reaches North and South America and the Caribbean. By means of this new joint venture, virtually anyone can afford to have a program on international airwaves at a cost of only one U.S. dollar per minute. At this cost, small cultural program producers will be entitled to the use of both stations, thus reaching a potential audience of millions of listeners.
Producers who wish to obtain more information about the new international public access radio provided jointly by NEXUS-IBA and WRMI may contact via E-mail at : IPAR@nexus.org or:
In Europe :
NEXUS-Int’l Broadcasting Association,
Fax : +39-02-706-38151
Telephone : +39-02-266-6971
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
These audio files are part of the first RealAudio tests on UNESCO Radio at Internet Radio NEXUS dating back in 1995, also broadcasted as weekend feature programs on IRRS-Shortwave. You can hear the very low audio quality (mostly 8 kHz), almost telephonic quality, used at the beginning of the Internet in the 1990’s when most people were connected to the internet using 9.6 or 14.4 kbps modems.
NEXUS-IBA pioneered the use of audio streaming technologies as one of the first beta-testers of the first audio streaming technology called RealAudio.
The old files in RealAudio (.ra) format have been converted to MP3 and preserve the original poor sound quality which was just suitable for transmitting voice information. They are kept online for historical reasons only and may have no actual value.
These UNESCO radio programs were produced by Erin Faherty-Mella, Executive Radio producer at Unesco, and Vaiju Naravane in Paris, and brodcasted also by NEXUS-IBA to Europe and North Africa on Shortwave.
UNESCO Radio: World Press Freedom Day Message (May 3rd, 1999)
UNESCO Radio: India's Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao presents "Ghandi in the Global Village" [02:29]
UNESCO Radio: Venice : The vanishing Waterland [20:47]
UNESCO Radio: Healing the wounds [17:29]
UNESCO Radio: The Silk Road [23:49]
UNESCO Radio: Stories from Northern Lands: Sweden, Part I [18:36]
UNESCO Radio: Chernobyl: Some lessons learned [20:00]
UNESCO Radio: Back to Dubrovnik, The Blood of the Stones [41:19]
UNESCO Radio: Dubrovnik revisited: a time for peace [24:32]
UNESCO Radio (Spanish): Conversationes con Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Director General de la UNESCO [27:22]
UNESCO Radio (Spanish): Education para todos : sueno o realidad ? [14:53]
UNESCO radio archives was last modified: November 21st, 2017 by NEXUS-IBA Editor