NEXUS-IBA and Milano Ventures Ltd. partnership

NEXUS-IBA selects Milano Ventures as partner

NEXUS-IBA selects Milano Ventures Ltd as global service partner

NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association (NEXUS-IBA, Milan, Italy) is a non-profit association founded in 1990. NEXUS-IBA provides its membership all necessary means for the effective dissemination of content on radio, TV, the Internet and any media in general. NEXUS-IBA reaches very country in the world. Radio and TV broadcasters from all-over the world make use of NEXUS-IBA’s Internet media streaming & distribution, radio, TV and satellite broadcasting services to reach audiences worldwide.

From Dublin, Ireland, Milano Ventures offers content media delivery services worldwide both to NEXUS-IBA’s members and commercial clients. Services offered by Milano Ventures include: international broadcasting, disaster recovery, professional email, software and application development, domain registration, web marketing & SEO, high reliability WorldDirector cloud hosting and related consulting services.

Get on the air on shortwave, satellite or streaming

Get on the air now!

Milano Ventures merges the competences and share the values of NEXUS-IBA in offering strategic consultancy and opportunities to international broadcasters, either secular and Christian, to reach any country in the world via International radio and satellite, and with the most advanced cloud technologies, including streaming and online media.

Be like the BBC (*), VOA, CNN, Radio France Internationale, The Deutsche Welle  (*), Al Jazeera or your favourite international broadcaster and cover the world with a single broadcast, at less than the cost of one market on FM or terrestrial TV at home.

(*) The BBC World Service and Deutsche Welle are among the many world international broadcasters hosted on our station in Milan, Italy. As a NEXUS-IBA member, they broadcasted live headline news and information to the English speaking community in Milan.

Africa and Asia satellite coverage

Africa and Asia satellite coverage

NEXUS-IBA and Milano Ventures help you reaching any world corner, using the most powerful station in the world, with more than 40 Million Watts (up to 43 MW ERP) on Shortwave radio, or via satellite and Internet streaming.

Secular and Christian broadcasting

Secular and religious broadcasting

 

Milano Ventures and NEXUS-IBA do not discriminate against race, sex, language, or political or religious beliefs. We promote pluralism of information, with particular attention to minorities, and above all ethnic, cultural, political, and religious minorities.

Over IPAR (International Public Acces Radio) we promote news and feature programs in English and any other language that deals with sensitive issues such as freedom of speech or are targeted to regions where freedom of speech is at stake, the Internet may be blocked, and mass communication media censored.

Over European Gospel Radio we promote Christian and religious programs aimed at worldwide evangelism, hosting any preacher, Minister, Church, missionary religious organisation or anyone who has something to say to “preach to the world”.

Over our mainstream streaming channels or via client’s dedicated audio (radio) and video (TV) channels we offer a 24/7 presence accessible anywhere in the world. We use our WorldDirector cloud, not necessarily controlled by any of the major cloud providers or Governments, running on an independent Content Delivery Network (CDN) with Point of Access servers spread across the entire world.

We think that our offer is a unique opportunity to any broadcaster or program producer to reach any country in the world, without barriers, using Shortwave radio, Satellite, AM or Medium Wave radio and internet streaming, in any possible combination.

Our audience is your audience

Program producerInternational broadcasting is a lot like advertising: everybody agrees that it works, but it is difficult to quantify. The world’s largest broadcasting organisations have been deeply involved in audience research costing vast sums of money.

Even the largest International broadcasters on cannot accurately estimate the size of their audience to any program they air, to the same or even a comparable level of accuracy than any FM or TV station can do for any particular market.

Since 1979, NEXUS-IBA has been working with several Radio Ministries, the BBC, the United Nations, UNESCO and other major International broadcasters and media, and with those involved in audience and International media research. Only the largest organisations like the BBC or Voice of America can afford the cost of conducting some audience research on Shortwave.

Some empirical data exists on the number of Shortwave receivers in each country, that lead to a potential audience of more than ten million in Europe and about the same in N Africa and the Middle East. These are regions that we can cover with a Grade-A signal using a 50 to 150 kW service on Shortwave. Most of the time we know that people are listening, because we monitor our signal quality continuously in several countries, and because listeners write us and to our members or program producers.

Graham Mytton, former Head of Audience Research of the BBC, stated:

People will go through the trouble of listening to shortwave, even when reception is difficult, if it provides something that they otherwise cannot get.

Our experience, in fact, is that – if your program has an impact, and is not available on local FM/AM – then people will tune into your program to listen to it. Someone calls it word-of-mouth propagation, and for this reason and our long-standing experience we are well known among Shortwave listeners worldwide for our high-quality radio relay services, at non-profit cost.

Most of our broadcasters and program producers do tremendous work to advertise their broadcasts among their churches or community members overseas. Once they know that we provide an excellent signal in the target area, then they tune and may call other people to listen to, in a snow-balling effect. This is something you have to consider doing when you start airing, i.e. using your existing contacts to spread the news about time, frequency and area that we cover. We can provide help to people tuning in, and we usually forward letters or email addressed at the station that mentions your program, but we cannot often go as far as keeping you connected with the audience of your program. You should consider this as part of your mission as a Shortwave Broadcaster!

For all the talk of satellite radio and TV, Shortwave radio remains the most cost-effective electronic mass medium that can span enormous distances instantly and penetrate into every home in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia and the Pacific. Also, Shortwave radio is portable and is a companion wherever one goes. It is indeed the world’s most mobile electronic mass medium. Modern Shortwave receivers are ultra-compact, inexpensive, and very easy to use.

On Satellite, we can distribute your radio and TV signal via satellites around the world.

Where Internet is available, beyond the digital divide, we also complement our services with simultaneous audio (radio) streaming.

Build your own radio station

Build your own radio or TV station

Milano Ventures and NEXUS will create your audio channels or your streaming radio station from scratch, including a visual player to be hosted on your website. Your streaming radio station can be based on your content, music, news, live events. We can also help locating and integrating news, information and additional material to create a loyal audience. Typical applications include in-store radio, Church or Christian radio, group or interest-based radio, news radio services, music, political, foreign or vernacular language service.

Marketing, SEO and lead generation

marketing, SEO and lead generation fro your company or organisation

Milano Ventures and NEXUS also help your organisation to create a modern communication strategy, i.e. creating real opportunities to make an impact with innovative services, such as marketing automation, fundraising, lead generation, on-demand marketing, online presence and social media management. NEXUS-IBA and Milano Ventures help secular and Christian organisations to increase fund-raising opportunities and to fund their mission and outreaching Ministries.

Continuous innovation and research in new technologies

Innovation in new technologies

With the help of Milano Ventures, the NEXUS association strengthens its position as Innovator and Technology Mediator or facilitator. We enable NEXUS-IBA’s members worldwide, as well as end-users, to make full use of innovation and the recent developments of technology in media, including broadcasting, social media and the Internet.

Our volunteers

our volunteers

People volunteering for NEXUS-IBA are professionals, teachers, university professors and researchers, journalists, students and engineers, most of them devoting their spare time and resources as a public service to the global community. On June 15, 1995, NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association was officially approved for association with the Department of Public Information of the United Nations, and for more than 20 years has been actively working in promoting the work and activities of both UN and UNESCO. Researchers at NEXUS-IBA created the first load-balanced cloud and Content Delivery Network (CDN) called WorldDirector, later used by Milano Ventures and their clients in Europe and USA.

Innovation in the Cloud

Innovaton in the cloud and internet

Most of Internet and cloud-related services and applications are delivered to end users, fast and reliably over the WorldDirector platform, including streaming audio and video services on behalf of our stations and members.

About the NEXUS term

NEXUS-IBA team: the cultural radio link

The NEXUS term was chosen because this Latin word says it all: a link or point of connection, using international media, radio, TV and cloud services to link content providers with their audiences. But NEXUS also stands for more than just a physical connection using a variety of technologies. It also means World communication and promoting freedom of speech around the world. When an individual or an organisation becomes part of NEXUS-IBA, they are part of a dynamic, highly professional and creative team devoted to utilising the latest technologies to deliver their content at the lowest possible cost.

Milano Ventures, Dublin, Ireland

 

 

 

Milano Ventures (Dublin, Ireland) is proud to be selected NEXUS-IBA’s partner to service their membership and commercial clients, service and and maintain their cloud and broadcasting infrastructure across all continents.

EMR’s founder Tom Taylor passes away

European Music Radio's Founder Tom Taylor passes away

It is with deep sadness that we announce that Tom Taylor, also known as Barry Stephens, former founder of European Music Radio, and passionate Shortwave radio enthusiast heard many times over our station passed away on the 22nd of January 2018. He is survived by his wife Jan, his son Jonny, and Lou his daughter.  Tom Taylor

We exchanged emails last November with Tom, and he wrote about his illness. Tom was extremely eager to return to the air in 2018. Tom has always been very proud of turning a legal broadcaster when joining us after he was operating a low powered Pirate station in London in 1976. During the last years, he has been partnering with other small program producers and helped them turning legal as well.

Tom Taylor in 2017

We are loosing a very good friend and a passionate radio lover alike. We are all going to miss him greatly at NEXUS.

We preempted our current scheduled broadcasts and will be repeating the last EMR program that Tom sent to us  over the next weekend according to the following schedule:

  1. Friday, Feb 2, 2018, 1900-2000 UTC on 7290 kHz (150 kW to EU) and 846 kHz MW
  2. Saturday, Feb 3, 2018, 0900-1000 UTC on 9510 kHz (150 kW to EU)

Tom’s EMR program will also be repeated at various other times on 846 kHz during the week starting Feb. 5, 2018, from 7 PM until 01 AM Central European Time on 846 kHz to Southern Europe, and available via live streaming.

We wish Tom good reception from the heavens. Enjoy, and keep listening to Shortwave.

Very best 73s.

Europe’s Cultural Radio link

NEXUS-IBA IRRS cultural radio link

The Cultural Radio Link to Europe

IRRS-Shortwave

In 1987, a small group of idealistic and highly dedicated people with broadcasting experience of their own had the idea of starting a Shortwave radio station to act as a link between independent cultural program makers and the European Audience. The Shortwave medium had been recognised for years as the most effective means of reaching the largest number of Europeans by radio and for the high quality of its audience. “The Italian Radio Relay Service” went on-the-air in November 1988 and was an immediate success.

The founders of NEXUS-IBA used their funds to finance the necessary equipment and initially used the facility in their spare time on Saturdays and Sundays to broadcast their programming consisting of music, discussion programs, topical presentations, vintage radio shows, and plays. IRRS-Shortwave quickly became a unique part of the European shortwave scene and attracted a lot of publicity and interest. In fact, the experiment was so successful that enquiries poured in from other program producers who were also anxious to use shortwave, but could not afford the high rates for airtime charged by the established commercial relay stations.

And so, the NEXUS/IRRS idea grew. Soon afterwards, IRRS-Shortwave began airing the current affairs and cultural programs of leading international, intergovernmental agencies and special program services produced by other broadcasters. Thousands of listeners praised their content as being of quality and nature not available elsewhere. The much older NEXUS FM station in Milan is today the sole outlet of the BBC World Service and a major source of multilingual programs in Italy’s most important industrial and commercial centre.

Proof of NEXUS-IBA’ established position in international broadcasting is the fact that it has earned a coveted separate listing in the prestigious “World Radio and TV Handbook” and “Passport to Worldband Radio”, the leading “Who’s Who’s” in international radio. In the religious broadcasting field, some internationally known and respected radio ministries have also become NEXUS members, making NEXUS-IBA in co-operation with “European Gospel Radio” one of the leading outlets of multilingual spiritual programming in Europe. NEXUS-IBA is, however, strictly non-denominational and open to membership of all faiths. With its seat in Milan, NEXUS is a non-profit association founded under Italian Law.

According to the Italian Broadcasting Act of 1990, The Association is designated as a “non-profit community broadcaster operating in the public interest”. NEXUS-IBA makes broadcast time available to members of the Association AT COST. Membership fees are very modest and entitle members to the lowest airtime rates. The small NEXUS-IBA administrative staff is highly dedicated and receives no remuneration beyond legitimate expenses. All revenues above rents, electrical, and maintenance costs go back into the Association to guarantee the lowest possible airtime rates. NEXUS-IBA is based in Italy but is truly international in its scope and philosophy. In fact, current programming is in English, French, Spanish, Russian, Polish, and Ukrainian. Programs may be in any language and deal with any subject. The NEXUS-IBA Executive Council exercises no censorship or control and intervenes only in cases where there might be a clear conflict with or violation of Italian Law.

IRRS-SHORTWAVE: THE TECHNICAL SIDE

On Shortwave, NEXUS-IBA operates one SIEMENS transmitter of extremely high quality and reliability. It is rated at 10 kW output and is fully automatic. Although capable of standard AM (double side-band) transmission, NEXUS-IBA has chosen to operate with the much more effective and efficient “A3A” modulation, i.e. Single Side-Band, reduced carrier mode, as recommended by the International Telecommunication Union. In this way, our signal has the same communication power as a conventional AM transmitter of 30 kW, while remaining completely compatible with non-SSB receivers. Careful frequency management and the use of digital audio processing techniques assure a signal strength and subsequent high station profile all over Europe and the Mediterranean area. From concept to transmission, NEXUS-IBA is on a solid basis and would be happy to welcome your organisation as a member. Please contact us soon for more information.

WHO NEEDS NEXUS-IBA?

Anyone who wants to talk to Europeans by radio in the most cost-effective manner.

Do you remember the pictures that went around the world during the Gulf War, showing people glued to their shortwave radios to get the latest news from the outside world? During that crisis, sales of Shortwave receivers skyrocketed leaving dealers with empty shelves. Shortwave once again demonstrated its importance and effectiveness. For all the talk of satellite radio and TV, Shortwave radio remains the most cost-effective electronic mass medium that can span enormous distances instantly and penetrate into every home in Europe. Also, Shortwave radio is portable and is a companion wherever one goes. It is truly the world’s most mobile electronic mass medium. Modern Shortwave receivers are ultra-compact and very easy to use. NEXUS-IBA offers you this direct access to tens of millions of Europeans at LOW RATES.

Do you remember when a telephone call between the U.S. and Europe cost $5.00 a minute? Today that same call costs a fraction of that amount. Thanks to cost-saving modern technology and, above all, automation, the miracle of international broadcasting has also become affordable for everyone. As specified in its legal charter, NEXUS-IBA makes this non-profit service available in Europe over Shortwave and local FM. The non-profit NEXUS system has cut overhead to the bone, but not at the cost of quality service! The small, dedicated NEXUS staff is non-salaried. This fact, along with computerisation coupled with state-of-the-art transmission equipment ensure NEXUS members reliable, top-quality coverage of Europe AT COST.

WHO WILL I REACH?

Technically-speaking, your message will reach every household and individual in Europe with a shortwave radio – and that’s conservatively estimated at over 50 MILLION PEOPLE! And there are millions of more travellers who carry shortwave with them to keep in touch with the world and for companionship along the way. Perhaps more important is the QUALITY of the shortwave audience. Shortwave listeners are well known for their above average education, open-mindedness, and interest in international, intellectual, and cultural affairs. Besides that, you will be in excellent company on NEXUS-IBA, which has already been used for years as a relay by international broadcasters and official international agencies of the highest standing.

NEXUS-IBA OFFERS MORE THAN JUST AIRTIME

Our non-profit organisation has expertise in European shortwave going back more than a quarter of a century. We offer TOTAL COUNSELING. We want to help you make your broadcasting mission a success. Whatever your programming, NEXUS-IBA will help you reach the right audience at the right time. If desired, this free counselling includes editorial as well as technical assistance, custom tailored to your individual needs. We offer extremely flexible scheduling, ranging from regular daily and weekly service to sporadic, ad hoc broadcasting of individual programs. We are prepared for short-notice service, and even for program material fed by telephone.

NO ONE IS TOO BIG NOR TOO SMALL TO BE PART OF NEXUS-IBA

Smaller programmers will appreciate the value for money of the NEXUS system made possible by its non-profit basis. Larger program institutions should be aware that, even if they operate their facilities on Shortwave, NEXUS-IBA reaches a very loyal and high-quality fragment of the Shortwave market that may not make a habit of listening to other stations. Our listeners have repeatedly expressed appreciation for the unique variety and quality of NEXUS-IBA programs, reflecting the wide range of NEXUS-IBA members. Perhaps you have “minority” program material that is not suited to your regular operations, or for which no time is available on your regular outlets. The chances are that this material will find a grateful audience via NEXUS-IBA. Furthermore, NEXUS-IBA has no political or religious affiliation. It has a very liberal editorial policy and does not edit or censor material unless in crass violation of official legal guidelines. With NEXUS-IBA you get your message on-the-air the way you want it heard. You are not at the mercy of a production middleman.  NEXUS-IBA is also interested in time and program exchange arrangements with other Shortwave, Medium-wave, and FM stations.

We could go on. But we think it would be more productive to talk with you directly about YOUR particular needs. Whether you are involved in cultural, tourist, current affairs, or religious programming, NEXUS-IBA was created to serve YOUR needs. Please contact us for detailed information at no cost or obligation. You are just a ‘phone call or letter away from your direct link to the European shortwave market. And don’t forget our FM service in Milan, serving the international community in Italy’s most important financial and business centre.

With its seat in Milano, Italy, NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association is a strictly non-profit association founded under Italian Law that operates IRRS-Shortwave and IRRS-Medium Wave to Europe. NEXUS-IBA makes available broadcast time at cost to members of the Association, with no commercial advertising on the air and, currently, with no corporate underwriting.

For more information please contact:

NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association
phone:  +39-02-266-6971
fax: +39-02-706 38151
email: info@nexus.org

Hello There archives

Hello There

The Hello There the listeners’ mailbag program, was just about the only production of NEXUS-IBA and regularly broadcasted IRRS-Shortwave (“I-double-R-S Shortwave, the Italian Radio Relay Service”. Alfredo Cotroneo, one of the founders of NEXUS-IBA,  hosted the program from 1989 until the late 1990s. He read and answered questions sent in by snail mail from all over the world.

During the early years of operation, the most exciting letters on the Hello There program were coming from Eastern Europe, i.e.  from East Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Hungary, and of course from the former Soviet Union (USSR). Shortwave was – at that time – the only way to receive news and information from the West, and IRRS-Shortwave was quite loud and clear all over Europe, and, most importantly, being a small, independent, non-governmental station, had never been jammed by Eastern European governments.

Letters to IRRS and the Hello There program were often smuggled across the East-West Berlin border by couriers and had an address in West Berlin for any reply to be sent to. Sometimes letters came directly from behind the iron curtain to our famous PO Box 10980 mail address in Milan (this address is no more active since 2015), and occasionally they were opened, and paragraphs were obliterated using sturdy coloured ink by censors.

The Hello There program ran initially for 30 minutes but was reduced to 15 minutes during the last few years until it was suspended. It included occasional phone interviews on technology, the early use of the Internet, international broadcasting, DXing and pirate radio.

Besides being broadcast on Shortwave from Milan, Italy, some the excerpts presented here were also part of the first RealAudio tests at Internet Radio NEXUS dating back to 1995. They have been converted to MP3 format are kept online for historical reasons only, and may have no actuality value. Due to recent cuts in our budget, we are unable to bring you these items on a regular basis as much as we would like to do. Please consider becoming a NEXUS-IBA sponsor.

On March 28, 1998,  the glorious HF broadcasting station at Schwarzenburg, just a few kilometres out of Bern, the capital of Switzerland, was shut down forever. At NEXUS-IBA we have special memories linked to the technicians and the station itself, as both of our first 10 kW Siemens transmitters that were previously used by Berna Radio’s aeronautical service come from the Schwarzenburg broadcasting station. Still, on old tube radio receivers around Europe, you may find the word Schwarzenburg on the illuminated scale, but now the Schwarzenburg station has been wholly dismantled and won’t be on the air anymore. Founded in 1934, Switzerland’s shortwave voice was heard from this glorious station around the world even during world war II as one of the few sources of reliable and objective information.

The Swiss PTT operated the HF transmitting station at Schwarzenburg until the end of 1997 when Swisscom took over as a private company. The station itself was used for telephony transmissions around the world, for aeronautical and maritime services, and also by SRI, Swiss Radio International, that for a few more years continued transmitting on shortwave from other locations in Europe and around the world.

You can hear the whole story from the two Bobs (Bob Thomann and Bob Zanotti), who, sadly, and for the last time, reported from the transmitter room in Schwarzenburg.

 

Farewell to Schwarzenburg, March 28, 1998, by the two Bobs [20:21]

by Bob Thomann and Bob Zanotti (Swiss Radio International)

A tribute to the two Bobs : Bob Thomann and Bob Zanotti and their last "Swiss Merry goes round" [14:36]

Special on Waco & sects (part1) (from Hello There) [31:01]

Special on Waco & sects (part2) (from Hello There) [25:48]

VideoCrypt Hacking on European satellite TV (from Hello There) [13:39]

Pirate Radio in Canada: Pirate Rambo [08:37]

Interview with Bill Pfeiffer - Moderator of rec.radio.broadcasting - on micro-radio (from Hello There) [13:26]

Interview with Universal Life's Primordial Christians (from Hello There) [13:51]

Internet Radio NEXUS Listeners’ comments

From our mailbag: Internet Radio NEXUS (IRN) Listeners' comments

Here are some of our early Internet radio listeners’ comments, dating back in 1995, when we were the first to start such streaming service in Europe and the USA:

Date: Fri, 02 Jun 95 20:40:20 -0700 Subject: (no subject) Hey folks just wanted to drop a quick note telling you I enjoyed your web-page. cool stuff, and a bit easier that getting you on shortwave here in New York 😉 do you QSL for web contacts?? 😉 ( just joking 😉 Tnx again!


Date: Sat, 03 Jun 95 11:34:06 -0700 Subject: Realaudio in The Netherlands Hello, Thanks for being on realaudio, i had never heard of your radio-station and just a few minutes ago, saturday 03/06/95 11.15 am Dutch Time, i located you on the short wave 7.125. The quality at the moment is bad, but i could follow the discussions. What i very much like is the information about UN on realaudio. Good luck and regards, Hans.


Date: Sun, 04 Jun 95 04:08:45 0600 Subject: (no subject) Keep up the great work with the Real Time Audio. I will be stopping by often to check out your progress. This has to be the start of something very BIG. Thanks for being on the forefront of this new technology. Rees Roberts Racine, Wisconsin USA


Date: Wed, 07 Jun 95 22:26:52 -0700 Subject: internet radio I want to congratulate you for a very nice page with interesting programs. It’s very nice for Americans to be able to hear broadcasts in languages other than English. Reception in San Francisco, California, is excellent tonight, 7 June, 1995. I hope you stay on-line and increase your services and available European programs. ————————————————————– ruth …a tout a l’heure….


Date: Thu, 08 Jun 95 21:08:30 -700 Subject: Internet Audio Receiving your programs loud and clear over the Internet in San Jose, California. Hope you keep it up! Mick


Date: Sat, 10 Jun 1995 16:07:46 -0700 Subject: RA Audio News Reports Dear Sirs, I wish to express my compliments on the fine work your group has done with this Web site. As a student of Foreign Relations, I found the stored audio news reports very informative and useful in my attempt to manitain awareness of world current events. The almost constant availablity of this information through the Internet allows me to access the information needed to assist my academic activities. I hope that this Web site can continue to be maintained beyond its test period and I am looking forward to continued access to all posted information. Thank you Sean Fannin University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio – USA


Date: Thu, 08 Jun 95 21:08:30 -700 Subject: Internet Audio Receiving your programs loud and clear over the Internet in San Jose, California. Hope you keep it up! Mick


Date: Sun, 11 Jun 95 08:42:04 -0700 Subject: (no subject) Your programs in the Internet are the only way to receive such great programs here in California. Please continue your work in the Net. I liked the segments of “Hello There”. Good job!! — Eduardo Villaseca


Date: Mon, 12 Jun 95 17:50:13 -0700 Subject: I have listened Hi! My name is Per and I live in Stockholm Sweden. I’ve just been listening to some of your programs, here on the WWW. It works quite fine with the Real Audio. I’m a DXer and radio-fan, so please put more radio related programmes on the Web. Thanks. 73 de Per


Date: 13 Jun 1995 12:30:40 -0700 Subject: (no subject) Congratulations on your audio site. I’ve just been listening here in Cork (Ireland) and reception is excellent. The quality is basically equivalent to reasonable MW, better than typical SW, with only the occastional break or jump in the datastream.I can’t tell you much about the technical side of the connection here – my pc, which has its own IP address, is connected via a university VAX mainframe. Piaras Mac Einri Department of Geography University College Cork Ireland


Date: Thu, 15 Jun 1995 00:47:10 +0200 Subject: internet radio Great idea and it’s even working! Please do go ahead! Greetings from Munich Rudolf Kuffner Bavarian Radio Broadcast, ARD


Date: Tue, 20 Jun 95 12:15:49 -0700 Subject: (no subject) I just wanted to write and say that I really enjoy your service. The Spanish language material is especially appreciated. Thanks Patrick Findlay


Date: Tue, 20 Jun 95 13:25:22 -700 Subject: thanks for providing the radio service Just wanted to thanks you for providing the real audio radio broadcasts. I really like being able to have access to non-American broadcasts/news. It is much more convenient to listen to real audio than to use a shortwave. Thanks.


Date: 22 Jun 1995 17:33:14 -0700 Subject: (no subject) Dear Sir/Madam, Further to my message last week from Cork (Ireland). Reception continues to be excellent – the quality would not be acceptable for anything except voice at present, but it is entirely adequate for this purpose. Curiously, I note that the quality is conistently better than the only other current European site, a UK newspaper, which is virtually inaudible as the sound continually “breaks up” and is not really comprehensible. I have no idea why reception from Italy should be so much better, when the packet-switching networks involved presumably work to comparable standards. I hope that you can continue to find a way to maintain your service, although I note that it is currently scheduled to stop in mid-July. It could provide a powerful means of countering much of the ill-informed and biased propaganda against the UN which has become so prevalent nowadays, especially in the United States of America. Having spent three years in a diplomatic posting in Lebanon and having seen at first hand the efforts of much-maligned UN forces on the ground, compared to the distorted media coverage which they often received, it is time for a more effective answering voice. Regards Piaras Mac Einri


Date: Fri, 23 Jun 95 16:53:12 -0100 Subject: Keep IRN in the net! Dear IRN, I¹m a listener from Hamburg, Germany, and I like your program best, looking around, what my be intersting and litening to your programm (I choose myself), when I can¹t stand the ²old³ radiostation in my hometown anymore ­ which happens quite often. I love “Radio on demand” as you do present it, and I hope, you¹ll survive the 15th of July best regards mic:­)


Date: Mon, 26 Jun 95 05:12:59 0000 Subject: (no subject) I AM TESTING REALAUDIO AND FINDING YOUR PROGRAMS ON THE NET WAS MARVELLOUS ! GREAT ! PLEASE DON’T GIVE UP ! – PIERPAOLO SARDELLI –


Date: Mon, 26 Jun 95 01:31:33 -0700 Subject: Internet Radio Nexus’s future As a long time shortwave listener and fairly new Internet surfer I really can appreciate the melding of the 2 mediums. Not long after I began exploring the web I realized just how similar it was to shortwave listening and felt it to be an extention of my interests in world culture outside my own back yard. I would encourage you to keep the site going as long as you are finacially able. I love RealAudio the possiblities it provides makes sites like yours very exciting ! I’ll be visiting this site often !


Date: Tue, 27 Jun 1995 14:02:29 EDT Subject: Listening in Boston! Just a quick line to say that I don’t have a shortwave receiver, That means that your audio files — in any form — .au, .wav. .ram, etc — are of the greatest interest to me, I’ve already listened to several of your programmes and been very impressed with them all. Please keep up the good work, and if you can, PLEASE * do NOT * stop your Internet broadcasts in mid-July! 🙂 Thanks again! F Tikhon


Date: Wed, 28 Jun 95 20:29:00 -700 Subject: Feedback Very good initiative. When this idea develops and spread, it will bee a good effort to bring us together on the globe. We can keep in contact with our place of birth and language even if we move to other areas on the globe. Interested people can check in and ithers point if view. God Luck. /Christer


Date: Sun, 02 Jul 95 07:05:33 -0700 Subject: comments re your web site I thought I would put my oar in here and let the powers that be it would be a shame to let your wonderful service die! I believe that the concept of real time audio over the net is one of enormous possibilities. It is going to be tough for any firm that is pioneering this form of media, but the pay-offs would be tremendous. Just think of the power of reaching 10’s of MILLIONS of listeners. Regards, VBH


Date: Wed, 28 Jun 95 23:13:04 -0700 Subject: Keep it alive Anna, I like the idea of REAL news here in the US. Its so hard to get a clean feed from the world news organizations with commercial and political fingers in all the pies. I’m not too keen on sending Money over the Internet, though. Can you give me a *real* address? Emil


Date: Thu, 29 Jun 95 22:40:27 0000 Subject: (no subject) Ho sentito, funziona tutto molto bene. Mi piacerebbe avere piu’ file in italiano da scoltare. Sara’ possibile in futuro avere un gateway in tempo reale delle trasmissioni che vanno sulla radio? Saluti, Carlo Maupoil


Date: Wed, 05 Jul 95 19:51:48 -0100 Subject: Please do stay… Hello, it’s terrible actually that you’re going to close down, but what can I do about it? I don’t have the cash to support you. I can only say that your experiment has indeed succeeded and that the work should definitely be continued. I love the extra news about ex-Yugoslavia because I’m involved in what’s going on because of my profession as a radiographer. So I really do hope that you are going to stay and keep doing what you have been doing until now. The implementation of ‘RealAudio’ is fabulous and of invaluable importance to the development and the future of the Internet and also to the way information will be provided and looked up. By the way, you’re the only European source of interesting RealAudio material and sincerely don’t want to listen to the American crap and ‘bull shit’ talk shows or whatever america-centric barbarity! Greetings from Amsterdam, Ronald


Date: Thu, 6 Jul 1995 12:04:24 -0400 Subject: feedback you are great! please, continue! I’m working with the Austrian Shortwave Radio & I really think that it is a big work that you are doing. Oswald Klotz


Date: Thu, 06 Jul 95 12:52:19 -0600 Subject: Stay on the “air”, Please! I found out about your site a little over a week ago. Since then I’ve been back at least 5 other times. You are one of the few sites that actually has something interesting to offer in RealAudio sound clips. I don’t have a shortwave receiver, so this connection is the only one I have to your station. Plus, as the technology develops for live broadcast of audio over the internet, maybe you could be on the forefront of that, too. I hope you can stay with us longer. Thanks.


Date: Thu, 06 Jul 95 14:36:06 -0700 Subject: internet radio Keep up the good job you are doing!!! great information and a great idea. I really like the site, and will tell my friends


Date: Fri, 07 Jul 95 11:34:12 -0700 Subject: feedback on internet radio This service is wonderful! Although I am not in the position to support you financially, I think your service deserves support of this kind from your government or local university. It is a wonderful service. Yours truly, James Choi. Sydney Australia.


Date: Mon, 03 Jul 95 02:01:40 -700 Subject: Unesco Radio This is excellent solution for radio broadcasting. No high power transmitters, no QRM and better (in the future) audio quality! Also the right way for Unesco-information!


Date: Sun, 16 Jul 95 08:02:28 -0700 Subject: (no subject) Just wonderful will be my comment. I really enjoyed listening to the reports from UN Radio about the situation in former Yugoslavia. I really don’t what to say to improve your site. Just keep up the good jog. Will be visit your site regularly. Please send me your latest schedule so I can try to listen to you on shortwave though it might be very difficult. Thanks and all the best P. Heng from Penang, Malaysia


Date: Sun, 16 Jul 95 21:02:54 -700 Subject: Internet Radio NEXUS Yours is an extremely interesting site to visit for good coverage of major international events, stories etc. Well done and keep it up. Steve Erasmus Johannesburg South Africa


Date: Mon, 24 Jul 95 14:32:47 -0700 Subject: (no subject) You site really reminds me of shortwave radio. I enjoyed the relay of United Nations Radio. Please lift the suspension of the “The World in Review.” Keep up the good work. Ed van der Meer


Date: Fri, 28 Jul 1995 10:01:25 -0400 Hi I am Luis Osorio from Chicago.I think that having radio news from you is great. This is my first experience with you and I just want to let you now that I was here. After having more contact with you, I will be writting my comments. Keep the good work. Question: Why have you stopped to updated the news on July 7?


Date: Fri, 28 Jul 95 22:16:55 -0700 Subject: UNESCO Radio via IRRS Shortwave It is really great to see that your organisation is using the net as a communication media. In future times I believe that you will play a crucial role in harnessing the power of universal education & knowledge thru this medium. Keep at it, Real audio is a great way to complete the package, Brian


Date: Mon, 31 Jul 95 21:33:51 0000 Subject: Great! This is really great, now the technique works it is time to get it organised so you can bring up to date news, music or whatever at every moment a day, that would be really outrageous! Chapeau as well to the people who made realaudio possible!


Date: Mon, 31 Jul 1995 23:07:25 +0200 Subject: realaudio sound quality I enjoyed listening to some of the sound clips featuring ‘Realaudio’. Yours is the best and clearest sounding implementation of this science I’ve heard to date. Interesting and informative subject matter too!


Date: Tue, 01 Aug 95 22:03:39 -0700 Subject: Your RealAudio clips Hello, I am really enjoying your RealAudio clips. I was wondering if you had anymore Italian, or Spanish excerpts or are planning to add a few more. Congratulations on a great job, and keep up the good work. Rafael

IRRS-Globe Radio Milan: 1979-1998

English Broadcasts on FM in Milano, Italy (1979-1989)

FM radio in Milan

Like most of other radio listeners in Europe, the Italians listen almost exclusively to hi-fi (stereo) programs aired on the FM band, rather than Medium Wave (AM) or Shortwave. There are obvious advantages to receiving FM vs Mediumwave or Shortwave regarding audio fidelity. Mediumwave broadcasts at the time were manly available throughRAI’s, the national state-controlled radio network.

However, Mediumwave (also called AM radio in the USA) had a sort of revival in the late ’70s and ’80s due to a heavy mutual interference of the thousands of FM signals on the Italian peninsula. Together with Radio Data System (RDS) on FM, Mediumwave/AM was the only option to remain tuned to the same station when distances above 10-15 miles are travelled by car. Mediumwave, although lacking in fidelity, provides a much wider coverage than FM due to the lack of co-channel interference, and it was often used for example to tune into the news service offered by RAI.

It must be noted that Italy has been pioneering private FM broadcasting since as early as 1975, when, in addition to the already established three national state-owned RAI channels (also on AM/Medium Wave) a number of small and aggressive FM stations went on air. Today thousands of FM stations and a few private national networks operate legally in the country. But back in the ’70s and ’80s reception conditions were quite critical, especially in large towns, because there were many, too many stations, often on top of each other.

At the time, driving around the greater Milano nearly one-hundred different stations could be found on the dial. Very often stations operated on the same channel from locations just a few miles apart; more often the separation was just 50 kHz (or less). This situation has been sometimes depicted as a “frequency jungle” by several foreign observers who compared this very competitive market to the cleaner situation in other countries. Clearly, for most stations coverage was a problem especially in large urban areas. But the case would have been solved later in the 1990’s with a frequency allocation plan, stricter rules, and the elimination of a large number of stations that followed. After years since a law first attempted to regulate private broadcasting (1990) no frequency allocation plan has been approved yet.

The Legal Situation

Although legally established, all private FM and TV stations in Italy still lacked frequency and power coordination from the Italian Post and telecommunication (PTT) Ministry. The first Broadcasting Act which was approved in August, 1990, after many aborted attempts to rule the Italian frequency spectrum, set a term of two years (expiring in August 1992) for the PTT Ministry to publish frequency allocation plans for both TV and radio stations in the country. The Ministry finally assigned formal licenses to only some of the existing operations. Several years later, however, we were still in the same situation as of 1990, as far as frequency occupancy and interference, especially in larger towns. The only form of “coordination” and elimination of interferences was put in place by larger networks who started buying off frequencies from the smaller broadcasters. In this way, they attempted to clear their own frequencies and killing de-facto smaller stations which were the spirit of the so-called free radio scene that broke the Italian State monopoly in the 70’s. Today, only a few of the smaller stations survive, especially in rural areas, and recent proposals to rule once again the market by the Italian Government seem to favour the largest network vs the smallest, but important, smaller stations. When the switch to DAB is completed in a few years, it is foreseeable that any still existing smaller station in rural areas would completely disappear.

As for radio, the 1990 Broadcasting Act identified two types of license: commercial and non-commercial or community radio (very similar to the US concept of public radio). Both licenses were granted on a local or national coverage basis.  All applications for a license had to be filled by October 20, 1990. After that date, the law stated that no new station could be built, nor other application accepted and, more importantly, no technical parameter of every station (e.g. antenna, frequency, transmitter power, etc.) could  (officially) be changed. Only in April 1998, a provision was added by decree to slightly modify the technical characteristics of a transmitter, if, for example, another transmitter belonging to the same station was shut down in the same area.

In the 1990s, in the Milano city area alone, commercial radio stations were outnumbering non-commercial/community operations by more than a factor one to thirty. NEXUS-IBA got a formal license to operate IRRS-Globe Radio Milano on FM 88.85 MHz as a local community broadcaster in 1995, and an authorization to operate an international Shortwave station from Milano, Italy, was also granted.

Our History

Milano is a very cosmopolitan city in Northern Italy. Its weekly specialised exhibitions at the local Fair attract many foreign visitors every year. Here live quite a large number of English speaking foreign residents (20,000+) as well as many Italians who speak this language fluently. All that together with the interest of several international broadcasting organisations, consular representatives in Milan, newspapers, listeners and friends helped us to create and maintain IRRS-Globe Radio Milan since 1979. IRRS-Globe Radio Milan was a unique adventure in broadcasting and the first English speaking station in Italy.

Back in 1979, the fact that most of the Italian radio listeners in large towns did not listen at all to international Shortwave, or Long Wave broadcasts, gave us the idea of starting a local English speaking FM station in Milano. No satellite radio or TV was yet available, and newspaper and magazines were almost all international media available in town at the time. Our FM English-speaking station started with very simple equipment, a lot of enthusiasm, and with just only a few Watts all the Milano city area was covered.

In 1979-1989 IRRS-Globe Radio Milan existed to provide NEXUS-IBA members and broadcasters a facility in what the National Geographic magazine defined as “Both a factory and a showcase for Italian products, a hub for the comings and goings of trade in Italy and much of western Europe, but also a city of fine food and subtle elegance and cultural wealth“. In the early beginnings when IRRS-Globe Radio Milan experienced little or no interference from other stations, there were listeners who tuned into our broadcasts from as far as 30-50 km away. At the beninng of the 1990’s, even with professional equipment and higher power, the heavy competition from commercial stations had undoubtedly reduced the station’s coverage to just about one third of the entire city area. This was a situation very common to other small stations in Milano, which did not improve when licenses were assigned in 1990.

Since its beginning, IRRS-Globe Radio Milan has been airing the best selection of English programming available on Shortwave. Over the years, programs from the BBC World Service, BBC English by Radio, Deutsche Welle, Radio Nederland, Radio Sweden, Swiss Radio International, HCJB, VOA, Radio Beijing, Family Radio, Radio Earth, UNESCO and United Nations Radio, as well as many other individuals and broadcasting organizations has been aired. They targeted our English-speaking listeners in Milano, often preceding what was later now being offered as VOA Europe or BBC World Service via satellite in many other European towns.

NEXUS-IBA is neither governmentally, nor privately funded. Although provisions exist in the NEXUS’ charter to accept financial donations from other bodies and institutions, all current operations are entirely financed by our members’ broadcasters. Moreover, no advertising is currently on air on any NEXUS-IBA station. All NEXUS-IBA personnel are professionals who have a full-time job elsewhere, and devote most of their spare time coordinating NEXUS-IBA activities as volunteers. The heavy use of state-of-the-art computer automation, digital broadcasting, and, only recently, the availability of satellite feeds, together with our hard work, has made it all possible until now.

1979-1998: Twenty years of FM broadcasting from Milano to the world

IRRS-Globe Radio Milan was shut down on Sept. 15, 1998. The decision came after NEXUS-IBA’s Executive Committee decided to focus the Association’s activities on Internet, International broadcasting, Shortwave and education.

Needless to say that our efforts could not be accomplished, nor continue, without your interest and support.

To support our activities, please visit our support page.

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