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In 1979, a local FM station went on the air in Italy's commercial centre, Milan, to serve the large English speaking community living in the town. In a short time, "IRRS-Globe Radio Milan" attracted a large audience in this cosmopolitan city, and it was also featured in the in-room cable radio services of Milan's leading hotels. Up to the present date, "IRRS-Globe Radio Milan"'s main programming consists of relays of BBC World Service. For more than eight years in operation, programming from the BBC, United Nations and UNESCO Radio, Radio Sweden International, Swiss Radio International, Radio Earth, World Music Radio, the Voice of America, WRNO-New Orleans, Radio China, Family Radio and a number of other small organizations and individual program-producers has been heard on 88.8 MHz in stereo FM in Milano via IRRS-Globe Radio Milan. From the beginning IRRS-Globe Radio Milan strove to be the English-speaking station in Milan, offering a wide range of information and entertainment to cover the complete needs of the English speaking community.
A lot of programs heard on FM are a good selection of the best ones available from the leading Shortwave services in the world, and our aim has been exactly to bring this material to a local audience on FM, who never heard this kind of programs on the SW dial, or more simply do not even know how to tune into the shortwaves.
Back in 1988, after years of successful operation on FM, the "Italian Radio Relay Service" management became more interested in the shortwave medium itself, asking the question: "if the idea worked in Milan, why not all over Europe"? At closer examination it became clear that there were also many small program-making individuals and groups that were eager to reach a European audience with their message thorough a reliable broadcaster. These people knew, on one hand, that shortwave is a proven means of reaching such a mass audience, but the rates charged by the big guys representing the traditional SW relay facilities in Europe were so high that ordinary people simply could not afford them, and, on the other hand, small pirate stations and local AM and FM stations could only cover a very limited area of the European Continent. So the IRRS-Shortwave idea was born!
The IRRS philosophy was simple: offer program-makers an effective and reliable shortwave relay facility in Europe at prices they can afford. But how could this be done? The answer was "creative engineering". Transmitter powers measured in the hundreds of kilowatts may sound impressive, but they are also very expensive and equally unnecessary to cover Europe. It was decided that a transmitter of 10kW would do the job quite well. But carrier power is not everything. More important are good frequency planning as well as the quality and effectiveness of the antenna and modulation. In the summer of 1988, an exhaustive search was made to find a location that would be best for shortwave. Finally, a place was found in the Po Valley where ground conductivity was excellent, assuring a low take off angle for the signal. To assure reliable operation, a 10 kW Siemens commercial communication transmitter was purchased, and it was decided to use an omni-directional L-dipole antenna configuration. There was long discussion about the best kind of modulation, resulting in the bold decision to experiment with reduced carrier single sideband or "A3A", based on the belief that European listeners would be equipped to receive this advanced form of modulation and thus enjoy the benefits of SSB. On the other hand, this type of modulation can also be received on ordinary AM receivers. But above all, the 10 kW of A3A modulation would have the same effect as 30 kW of conventional AM.
Initially, a multi-band antenna system for 75, 41 and 31 meters was installed and in November 1988 test transmissions began on 3.945 MHz, just minutes after the antenna was completed. Unfortunately, an unknown utility station objected to IRRS' use of 3.945 and jammed our operations, but not before dozens of reception reports came in. After those initial tests, the frequency of 7.160 MHz/41 mb was chosen for early mornings, with a band change to 9.860 coming at 11.00 CET. And so, IRRS-Shortwave came into being.
In those early days, IRRS-Shortwave needed to establish itself as a reliable, regular service. So in addition to programming provided by United Nations and UNESCO Radio, IRRS-Shortwave maintained its Sunday broadcasts schedule by playing music and radio plays as well as recordings of old radio programs. The big breakthrough came early in 1990 when IRRS-Shortwave was able to sign a number of contracts for the relay of a wide range of religious broadcasts. At the same time, United Nations Radio decided to expand its programs by including the Russian language and providing IRRS-Shortwave with up-to-the minute news in connection with the Gulf crisis through the telephone line, just a few hours before going to air, thus making IRRS the best source of UN information in Europe.
Presently, IRRS-Shortwaves weekend broadcast schedule is almost fully booked between 07:00 and 15:30 CET. Several hours of regular programming have also begun on Saturdays, and there has been a series of weekday transmissions at various times, including 07:00 to 08:30, and 18:00 to 22:00 CET, all on 3,985 and 7,120 kHz. During the next summer period we shall also resume using 3,955 from 22:00-24:00 CET, mainly on weekends.
1990 has also brought with it the most significant development in private broadcasting in Italy since the beginning in 1975. IRRS-Shortwave always registered its operations on FM and Shortwave with the Italian Authorities. In October 1990, however, in order to continue its local and international transmissions in compliance with the Italian Republic's law no. 223 of August 6, 1990 which first set the rules for radio and TV broadcasting in Italy and establish the guidelines for licensing stations, "NEXUS-International Broadcasting Association" was founded with the aim of taking full control of all IRRS FM and Shortwave operations. The new law strictly regards as a criminal offence the establishment of any new radio and TV station after August 9, 1990, leaving IRRS the biggest and most powerful private SW operation in this country (as it actually has been for some time).
Five years later, in 1995, a new law was passed which sets new rules and regulations for privately owned Shortwave stations operating from Italy. NEXUS-IBA has been very clear in saying that this was a clear attempt by the Italian Ministry of Communications (PTT) to close down and prevent all type of Shortwave broadcasting from Italy. The Shortwave broadcasting Act, in fact, sets strict rules on the type of programming that we can carry, i.e .all programmes must be produced by the licensee, prohibits all forms of sponsorship and advertising, bans any broadcast directly beamed to Italy, and sets a yearly license fee of aprox. 15,000 US dollars.
NEXUS is a non-profit association whose membership is open to all small and big broadcasters as well as IRRS-Shortwave listeners who would like to support our activities with their help and financial support. According to NEXUS-IBA's charter, the Associations aim is to provide a cultural, ethnic, and religious radio service on a local, national and international basis. Furthermore, the association offers its media and assistance to members in order for them to air cultural, scientific, political and religious material, locally in Milano, in Italy as well as internationally through all media controlled by the association, granting by all means pluralism and access to these media especially to ethnic, cultural, political and religious minorities, with no distinction of race, sex, language, political credo or religion. According to its charter, NEXUS will also promote and sustain financially the production and transmission of certain educational, cultural, political and religious programs using available funds and through the media controlled by the association; NEXUS will promote as well production and transmission of programs in Italian beamed to Italians living abroad, also in cooperation with other national and international organizations.
NEXUS is not currently sponsored either financially or by other means by any governmental or non-governmental organization. All users of IRRS-FM and Shortwave outlets as well as any other media that will in the future come under control of the association have to share the expenses of running such facilities. Annual membership fees which varies from 100 to 300 US dollars as well as hourly rates for the usage of IRRS transmitters are used to cover the running costs of the association and its media, as well as to promote new programs. With these funds, in fact, NEXUS Executive Board may also decide to finance in part or all the production and transmission of particularly valuable programs produced by its members or by the Association itself in accordance with the aims of the association clearly defined in NEXUS's charter.
The force of NEXUS-IRRS is a small but dedicated staff of people who put in many hours of their free time, and at no cost, to provide a reliable service both to its listeners and members-program producers. Running IRRS-Shortwave in the past and NEXUS at the present time is complicated and very time consuming. There is constant correspondence; taped material has to be fetched from the post office to IRRS-FM and Shortwave broadcasting studios; QSL cards have to be written and all other correspondence and listeners inquiries answered; all listeners' letters have to be Xeroxed in more than twenty copies and sent to all IRRS broadcasters (they may also answer themselves after a few weeks with a personal letter or a QSL card of their own); and operations personnel have to be organized and rostered. From the beginning, programs are transmitted directly from IRRS transmitter sites (FM & SW). We were one of the first stations in 1990 all operations became completely digital and automated, being fed via ISDN from the Association headquarters in the centre of Milan.
Along the way of this unique venture in local and international broadcasting with NEXUS-IRRS, we would like to take this opportunity to thank the many Shortwave listeners who have supported IRRS-Shortwave from its beginning, and ask them to continue their support by becoming members of NEXUS and by tuning regularly to our broadcasts; by continuing to report and above all COMMENT on programs and reception; and possibly even writing us with supportive comments that we could pass along to all competent authorities who are allowing us to continue our work from this country.
We have now entered the era of Internet broadcasting, and many stations are closing down on Shortwave and opening new paths in satellite and RealAudio delivery instead. In 1994, NEXUS-IBA, established itself on the Internet, and became the first radio station in Europe to use RealAudio. Today NEXUS-IBA is also a global, international Internet Service Provider (ISP) with own servers located in Europe and the USA. NEXUS-IBA offers Web hosting, including RealAudio, as well consulting, to members and non members of the Association. All funds coming from Internet services help supporting our operations on Shortwave and on FM.
Finally, we would also remind once again that NEXUS is now a non-profit association and by no means can (by law!) IRRS activities be regarded either commercial or profit making. In this true spirit of service to our listeners and broadcasters community, and along the lines of NEXUS charter, the Executive Board would like to support when possible with regards to NEXUS available funds those programs of a "hobby nature" which has been heard in the past over IRRS and are produced in great number around the world. Please contact NEXUS for further information, by e-mail at email@example.com or at http://www.nexus.org.